How to backup your Files
Also - Create recovery media for your PC!
"There's one simple rule about backups that everybody needs to fully understand: Your files should exist in at least Two places, or it's no longer a backup - and your data is at risk. Too often people delete the files from their primary PC, assuming they are backed up." Quote from Lifehacker
Need more help? - Keep on Reading.
Online backup - to the Free Cloud
(If you have a relatively fast internet connection (5 Mbps or better) - and the volume of your data to be backed up is not large (Less than 15GB).
A good way to back up your important data is to get a free account with an online backup site such as Dropbox, Google Drive or Microsoft Onedrive (formerly Skydrive).
To get the most from Dropbox or Onedrive you should install their software when you sign up.
The online files are protected by username and password and 128 or 256bit encryption so they should be safe from prying eyes.
Be aware that if you install the Dropbox and/or Onedrive software on your PC the startup time will be increased a tiny bit since the online files must be synced with the ones on your PC when you boot your computer. However this is not a bad tradeoff since your files will always be saved the moment you create them if you save them to the folder created by the (Dropbox, Onedrive or Google Drive Backup and Sync) program.
After installing the software (either Dropbox, Onedrive or Google Drive) look for their folders in the Quick Access section of any File Explorer window.
Paid Online Backup services
If you have a large amount of valuable, personal or business files you may need to use a commercial online backup service rather than a free service that limits how many Gigabytes of data you can store without payment. Also remember the adage "You get what you pay for." For a list of Paid online backup companies along with recommendations see this list from Lifehacker - Best Cloud Backup Services Reviewed
Create a disk image (Disk Clone)
This will save all user data as well as your installed operating system. No seperate recovery disk is needed. But you will need a Repair Disk to boot your PC to allow you to access and install the disk image you created earlier to get your PC up and running again.
If you wish to make disk image backups of your PC's Hard Drive and files I recommend that you use a program such as Acronis True Image or Macrium Reflect (free version available) to make a backup image file that you can keep updated. For this you will, almost certainly, need a USB external hard drive rather than a smaller USB Flash Drive.
USB external hard drives are now available for less than $100 for a 1 terrabyte drive. See some examples at Amazon.
Amazon also has Acronis True Image software for a good price if you are partial to that software.
A system image backup will come in very handy if your PC's hard drive goes belly up or is corrupted by malware or, even worse, your PC is captured by ransomware.
After replacing the dead drive or reformating your original hard drive you would be able to load the backup drive image from your external hard drive onto the new or reformatted internal hard drive. The backup software will also create a bootable Repair DVD, CD, or flash drive to boot your PC then install the image file onto your PC - keep this disk in a safe place along with your portable hard drive that contains the backup system image!
The image will install your personal files, programs, and Windows operating system all at once!
Your PC will be back in running order much faster this way.
There is an excellent tutorial for creating an image file using Macrium Reflect free on How to Geek website. The tutorial explains how to create the backup image and then how to re-install it onto your PC at a later date.
Note: This How to Geek tutorial's purpose is to backup a PC prior to an upgrade to Windows 10, however the procedure works to save your data, no matter the purpose.
Use Microsoft's free tools
Microsoft also has tools to create backups to external hard drives. In Windows 10 the tool is called File History Backup.
To learn more about Windows 8 or 10 File History backup go to this Microsoft page for instructions. How to Geek also has a good how-to on File History.
Simple backup to an inexpensive USB Flash Drive
The easiest and most simple way to make secure backups of your important files is to copy them to a USB Flash Drive.
If the files you wish to backup total less than 32GB (for an inexpensive Flash Drive) - you can do this without buying a more expensive external hard drive along with the backup software.
Be sure to copy the original files to the backup disk or drive and not simply the shortcuts to them. Any shortcuts saved will point to nothing when you reload your files to a new hard drive or new OS installation. You will be very disappointed!
Note: The downside to the flash drive method is that it is not automatic. You must not forget to keep your backup current.
The upside is that all of your backed-up files from your USB Flash Drive can easily be restored if you have a PC hard drive failure. (Just copy them back to your PC's drive after you have replaced your hard drive and reinstalled Windows)
Be sure you have recovery media for your PC!
If your PC came with Windows 8 or 10 installed it is unlikely that your PC shipped with recovery media.
How to do it
If you have had your Windows 8 or 10 PC for a while and wish to create your recovery media do this:
*For Windows 8 - In the Start Screen type Recovery or if you have a third-party Start Menu installed type it into the Search Box in the Start Menu.
*For Windows 10 - Click the Search (magnifying glass) icon in the taskbar then type Recovery, then press enter.
*Choose Recovery Media Creation. (Under Apps in Win 10)
*Get good quality DVD-R disks (probably at least 4 to 8 of them) or a good quality USB Flash Drive, 32GB. The size of the flash drive needed depends on the size of the recovery partition on your PC's hard drive. The size can vary with each PC make.
Note: Any data on a flash drive can be altered or deleted. Keep your Recovery Flash Drive in a safe place and don't use it for any other purpose!
*Insert the disks or flash drive when the Recovery program asks for them then follow the directions.
*You may use the program to create only one copy of the recovery media.
The creation process is nearly automatic assuming the recovery partition on your hard drive has been left in place and/or there is no damage or disk errors on your hard drive. That's why it's a good idea to create your recovery media soon after acquiring your Windows 10 computer.
At the end of the Recovery disk creation process the Recovery program will normally state that since you have created your disaster recovery disk(s) you can now delete the Recovery Partition on your hard drive.
I recommend that you keep your Recovery Partition on your hard drive - don't remove or delete it!
If you were to have a problem (such as a severe PC virus) that required re-installation of the Windows OS you could use the Recovery Partition on your hard drive to either Refresh or Reset your PC. This process may not be possible if the Recovery Partition were not left intact on your hard drive.
For more information concerning the Refresh and Reset options of Windows 8 and Windows 10 see my page Refresh or Reset your new Windows PC.
Realize that Recovery media is not the same as a backup! Recovery Media allows you to get your PC going again after a disaster (a crashed hard drive) but does not save any of your personal data for later re-installation. You will need to create a separate plan to backup and save your personal files.